The navicular primary ossification center is the last to appear at 3 years.
There are classifications for the navicular, which include the Watson-Jones (tuberosity, dorsal lip, body, stress – TABS mneomonic fractures). Navicular body fractures have a classification called the Sangeorzan (3A-C).
PTTD pathological joint axis
Os tibiale externum
- hard to heal, high rate of non-union. 6-8 weeks NWB, then 4-6 weeks WB immob.
- most commonly occurs: middle third
- dorsalis pedis artery: dorsal and medial
- medial plantar artery: plantar and lateral